Psychopathology flashcards, diagrams and study guides
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Top 20 sets of about 21,100
-severe alterations in mood for long periods of time-->soaring elation or deep depression -abnormal mood is defining feature -also called affective disorders
intense and unrealistic feelings of excitement and euphoria
feelings of extraordinary sadness and dejection
a depressed mood or loss of pleasure most of the day for at least 2 weeks
having a major depressive episode without having manic, hypomanic, or mixed episodes WITH relapse and recurrence
Five or more of the following symptoms have been present during the same 2-week period and represent a change from previous functioning; at least one of the symptoms is either 1) depressed mood or 2) loss of interest of pleasure. 1) Depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day, as indicated by either subjective report (e.g., feels sad, empty, hopeless) or observation made by others (e.g., appears tearful). 2) Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities most of the day, nearly every day (as indicated by ether subjective account or observation) 3) Significant weight loss when not dieting or weight gain (e.g., a change of mare than 5% of body weight in a month), or decreases or increases in appetite nearly every day. 4) Insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every day. 5)Psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day (observable by others, not merely subjective feelings of restlessness) 6) Fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day. 7) Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt (which may be delusional) nearly every day. 8) Diminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness, nearly every day. 9) Recurrent thoughts of death (not just fear of dying), recurrent suicidal ideation without a specific plan, or a suicide attempt or a specific plan for committing suicide.
Evaluation Real life application - can be used to identify intellectual disability disorder and other mental disorders in which diagnosis includes a measurement of how severe their symptoms are compared to statistical norms/averages Identified abnormalities can be positive - if this is the case should it be treated as an abnormality and continue to be diagnosed? - IQ scores over 130 are equally as statistically infrequent but this doesn't require treatment. Society has deemed what is expected in order to be 'normal' but does this mean efforts should be made to adjust abnormalities to the norms? Should everyone be labelled - individuals that are statistically identified as abnormal yet live a happy and fulfilled life would not benefit from a diagnosis - being labelled as abnormal even though they are capable of working/living may change the way others view them and the way they view themselves
occurs when an individual has a less common characteristic. they are usually located 2 SD away from the mean on a normal distribution graph.
2% of people have an IQ score below 70
also known as psychopathy - impulsive, aggressive and irresponsible behaviour. absence of prosocial internal standards, and failure to conform to lawful or culturally normative ethical behaviour.
A demand made on an organism to adapt or adjust. We experience stress when the environment demands more from us than we perceive ourselves to be able to cope with
Source of stress. Can be positive or negative. CAn be trauama related, a life event stressor, or acculturation stress
Researched by Hans Selye. Bodys 3 stage response to states of prolonged or excessive activity
Involves severe alternations in one's mood for a much longer period of time. Disturbances in mood are intense and persistent enough to be clearly maladaptive, and often lead to serious problems in relationships and work performance. In all mood disorder, extremes of emotion or affect - soaring elation or deep depression - dominate the clinical picture. An abnormal mood is the defining feature in all mood disorders. Two Key Moods involved in a mood disorder is *mania*, often characterised intense and unrealistic feelings of excitement and euphoria, and *depression*, which usually involves feelings of extraordinary sadness and dejection. Some people only experience episodes of time periods of depressed moods, while others experience manic episodes at certain points and depressive points at others. Mood states are often seen as being on either end of the continuum, with normal mood resting in the centre, yet this is only correct to a certain degree. Sometimes individuals can have mixed symptoms of both mania and depression during the same time period * mixed episode cases* or an episode of illness.
Both *unipolar* and *bipolar* mood disorders are distinct in the DSM-IV-YR are distinct for classification. The two are not entirely totally distinct. yet, there are notable differences in symptoms, causal factors, and optimal treatments. It is also important to differentiate based on severity and duration ( chronic or intermittent). To diagnose a mood disorder as unipolar or bipolar, we first must determine what kind of mood episode the patient is presently showing.
The person shows markedly elevated, euphoric, or expansive mood, often interrupted by occasional outbursts of intense irritability or even violence - particularly when others refuse to go along with the manic person's wishes and schemes. These extreme moods must persist for at least a week for this diagnosis to be made. In addition, three or four additional symptoms must occur in the same time period, ranging from behavioural such as a: * notable increase in goal-directed activity * pleasure seeking and loosening of personal and cultural inhibitions such as in multiple sexual, political, or religious activities * Mental symptoms where self-esteem becomes grossly inflated and mental activity may speed up ( such as lights of ideas, or racing thoughts, more talkative, distractibility), *physical symptoms such as decreased need for sleep or psychomotor agitation. Features must be significant enough to cause marked impairment in occupational functioning or in usual social activities or relationships with others, or to necessitate hospitalisation to prevent harm to self or others.
A generally negative complex emotion with fear as the fundamental component. A mood state characterized by strong negative emotion and bodily sxs of tension, with apprehensive anticipation of future danger or misfortune (Barlow, 2002).
A set of physiological, cognitive, and behavioral response systems that are activated during perceived danger or threat.
Activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Increased: adrenaline and noradrenaline (HPA axis), heart rate and blood flow, respiration, perspiration, muscle tension, pupil dilation. Decreased: salivation and digestion.
Substance abuse Genetic tendency Poor response to medication Poor sleep
Two way relationship between substance abuse and mental disorder People with mental disorders experience substance abuse problems at higher rates that the rest of population (mood disorders= 2x likely to abuse drugs, schiz= highest rate of substance abuse of any group in the population) People who regularly use or abuse drugs are at a higher risk of developing mental disorders
Psychotropic medications used to control onset of disorder or manage the severity of symptoms → they do not cure condition, but manage symptoms Metabolism too high: Medication is metabolised too quickly to have an effect Metabolism too low: medication build up in the body and cause severe side effects A poor response to medication means having little to no reduction in the number or severity of symptoms despite taking medication as prescribed
b. "Have you had a history of manic episodes?"
a. there is a complex genetic basis of bipolar disorders involving interactions among multiple genes
b. social rhythm therapy
Behaviour must be maladaptive and consistent with other criteria - Dysfunction, deviance, distress/impairment - all three must be present
the theory of personality organization and the dynamics of personality development that guides psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology. First laid out by Sigmund Freud in the late 19th century
an approach to psychology that emphasizes empathy and stresses the good in human behavior. In politics and social theory, this approach calls for human rights and equality. In counseling and therapy, this approach allows an psychologist to focus on ways to help improve an individual's self-image or self-actualization - the things that make them feel worthwhile.
depressive disorders bipolar disorder
excessive unhappiness (dysphoria) and loss of interest in activities (anhedonia)
mood swings from deep sadness to high elation (euphoria) and expansive mood (mania)
Traditional definition: the correlation OR co-occurrence of two or more disorders. The co-occurrence of more than one disorder within an individual Feinstein, 1970. The co-occurrence of two or more disorders with distinct etiologies or, if etiologies are not known, distinct pathophysiology Vella et al., 2000 The covariation of two disorders Lilienfeld, 2003
Comorbidity is the rule rather than the exception in clinical and epidemiological populations Krueger and Markon, 2006; Kessler et al., 2011; Widiger & Clark, 2000 50% of individuals diagnosed with mental illnesses have a lifetime history of 3+ disorders aka multi-morbidity. Kendler et al., 1994. Furthermore, in clinical populations, the majority of people have more than one disorder e.g. Brown et al, 2001 found that 95% of clinical sample meeting criteria for lifetime history of MDD or dysthymia also met criteria for current or past anxiety disorder. Brown et al, 2001 found that 95% of clinical sample meeting criteria for lifetime history of MDD or dysthymia also met criteria for current or past anxiety disorder. There are several pairs of disorders for which the comorbidity rate is significantly higher than chance, so chance does not explain the overlap, Zimmerman & Chelminski, 2003. The number of disorders coded in the DSM has greatly increased over the past years; with this proliferation of disorders comes an increase in the overlap and chances for comorbidity Klein & Riso, 1993.
Patients with comorbid conditions have significantly different and more negative outcomes than patients with just one diagnosis. Zimmerman & Chelminski, 2003: compared demographic, clinical, family history and psychosocial characteristics of three independent groups: MDD without GAD, MDD with GAD, and pure GAD. Found that those with comorbid GAD/MDD had higher suicidal ideation, poorer social functioning, and higher rates of multimorbidity. Drabick & Kendall, 2010: comorbidity is common among youth and adults and is associated with increased symptom severity, worse impairment, more negative correlates, differential treatment response, and distinct courses. Jensen 2003: Although we know that comorbidity exists, we have little research about it, or about treating it, particularly as most treatment studies exclude individuals with comorbid disorders.