Sociobiology flashcards, diagrams and study guides
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Top 17 sets of about 13,200
give an example of a bird species with a large range of social organization
social weaver that lives monogamously in forests
social weaver that live in small colonies where each pair share multiple nests - in the river valleys
refers to the process of animals becoming accustomed to human observers
1) Primates express themselves socially through a range of behaviors 2) Many primate societies are completely organized 3) Primates form various social relationships for the long term
refers to a social group that includes one adult male, several adult females, and their offspring
An interaction between individuals resulting in increased fitness for both the actor and the recipient.
An interaction in which the actor gains fitness and the recipient loses fitness.
Behavior that decreases the fitness of the actor and increases the fitness of the recipient.
A strategy that cannot be invaded by another strategy once adopted by a population
1.) Individuals of all tactics exhibit equal fitness 2.) No individual can improve their situation by changing tactics 3.) Variations can arise from different strategies employed within or among individuals 4.) Once established, no new strategy can invade unless the environment changes, but... 5.) Evolution of new tactics may persist if advantageous (would need to exhibit equivalent fitness to form a new ESS-> if better, it would simply dominate and upset the ESS)
Competing tactics leading to the formation of a single, stable strategy
Altruism is a form of behaviour that benefits other individuals at the expense of the one that performs the helping action
Kurzban, Burton-Chellow & West (2015)
Their overall conclusion was that Altruism has evolved largely through social learning, and a genetic component likely exists yet Is difficult to pin point
-hamilton 1964 -4 main ways that 2 individuals can interact - gains and losses (payoffs) in terms of fitness -alturism -selfishness -mutualism cooperation -spite
'that which should not evolve' because actor suffers a fitness cost for others
-free riders share the benefits but not the costs -this is true for mutualism as well as altruism -problem that Darwin 1859 recognised -neuters or sterile females in incest communities - works by collecting nectar, risking her life but doesn't reproduce instead lives a few weeks and dies why would an individual sacrifice itself for others -he viewed this as potentially fatal to his whole theory
Knowledge of both their vocalizations and their context
-Genes of individuals who engage in behaviors favored by natural selection are passed from one generation to the next -Primate social behavior is influenced by evolution
Primates express themselves socially through a wide range of behaviors
Can give us insights into the selective pressures that may have shaped the evolution of language
Lack of sexual dimorphism due to decreased competition for mates in a monogamous social structure
One males and many females. Occurs when resources are clumped (resource or female defense) or uniform (male dominance). Female biased care is favoured.
Males with advertise to females in an area, and females decide who to mate with. This occurs when resource defence is not possible (uniform)
multiple males providing care to a female's offspring. Seen in clumped environmental and male biased parental care.
A form of natural selection that results from differential mating success in one sex
Sexual selection where males compete with each other
Sexual selection in which females choose their mates
The presence of cuckold males reduced egg guarding significantly, from a score of 80+-10 to a score of 57+-7. On the other hand, it did not affect offspring guarding. The scores with and without cuckold males were almost the same for hatched offspring. This difference occurred because the presence of cuckold males reduced the nest-owner's paternity certainty so he would make less egg-guarding effort. After the offspring hatched, the nest-owners knew for sure that they were his genetic offspring, so he does not reduce guarding.
In both of the experiments, males reduced their parental care (lower egg-guarding scores) relative to other males in the control group when they were given signals that the offspring were less likely to be genetic offspring. We can conclude that genetic relatedness to offspring has an important orly in parental care of bluegill sunfish.
The dominant male should prefer a trio because if the second male is his brother, which he most likely is, they share genes. So, passing on the most possible family's genes is what's important to the male. He will want to help his brother pass down genes (indirect fitness) along with himself passing down genes (direct fitness) to result in a greater abundance of offspring overall. The dominant male would not prefer a trio if the second male is not related to him. He would likely to utilize his dominance to prevent the second male from mating with his female mate.
reproduction that does not involve fertilization or meiosis ex. budding "all eggs in one basket" -problematic with environment change
form of asexual reproduction found in females, where growth and development of embryos occurs without fertilization by a male. - all female "clones" ex. whiptail lizards
Are parthenogenetic, used as an example for asexual reproduction. also use courtship behavior to increase sexual fertility
Primates express themselves socially through a wide range of behaviors
Bonding between two members of a social group, calming or appeasing the primate being groomed if he or she has a higher dominance.
behaviors that appear to reduce the reproductive fitness of the individuals performing them but enhance the recipients' reproductive fitness. For example, adult baboons might give warning calls to their social group or even attack predators and, in doing so, place themselves at jeopardy. Grooming, food sharing, and caregiving are also altruistic because one primate invests time and effort in another.
____ dispersal is the most common pattern in mammals, including primates. a. elders b. children c. elderly d. male e. females
Primate groups composed of several adult males and females are advantageous in areas where a. predation pressure is low b. there are few sleeping sites c. primates are crepuscular d. predation pressure is high e. humans are active
In the context of social groups, dominance hierarchies a. have not been studied by primatologists b. impose a certain amount of order within the group e. are maintained by females only d. are maintained by males only e. are not present in any primates species.
both avoiding predators and increased success in foraging
larger groups are safer from predators but must travel further to find food
the killing of primate group members by poachers accustoming the primate members to the presence of the researcher locating primates all of the above-
1) Generally, primates that cooperate in social groups are better able to protect themselves from predators. Those in larger groups are better able to protect themselves that those in smaller groups. 2) Living in social groups provides access to mates and enhances reproductive success. In the short term, sexually mature males and females living in the same group have reproductive access. In the long term, young are taught normative behaviors that reduce stress, promote longevity, and enhance success overall.
1) Primate societies are highly diverse, ranging from solitary animals to complex multimale, multifemale groups. Most primates live in some kind of social group and do so on a long-term basis. 2) Male reproductive strategies emphasize competition between males for access to reproductive-age females. Female reproductive strategies emphasize care of young and access to food for young and for the support of mothers' and their offspring's nutritional needs.
1) Primates' wide variety of habitats require them to use a wide variety of food-foraging strategies. Chimpanzees are the only primate known to systematically hunt other animals, including other kinds of primates. 2) primates rely entirely on their bodies for acquiring and processing food for consumption. Humans rely on extrasomatic means-material culture-to acquire and process food. Chimpanzees, orangutans, and some New World monkeys employ rudimentary technology, reflecting socially transmitted knowledge. 3) Some primates (chimpanzees, for example) have material culture. They and other primates have displayed some learned behavior and cultural tradition, such as forms of social grooming and vocalization that are unique to specific groups and regions.