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Aviation Formulas and Rules of Thumb
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Key Concepts:
Terms in this set (22)
CONVERTING MACH TO TAS
MACH x 6 = TAS
CONVERTING MACH TO NM/Min
MACH x 10= NM/Min
CONVERTING TAS to NM/Min
60 KNOTS =1NM/Min TAS/60 = NM/Min
120 = 2 420 = 7
180 = 3 480 = 8
240 = 4 540 = 9
300 = 5 600 = 10
360 = 6
TEMP CONVERSIONS ˚F
F = ([Cx2] - 10%) + 32˚
Example: 10˚C is how many ˚F?
10 x 2 = 20 - 2 = 18 + 32 = 50˚F
TEMP CONVERSIONS ˚C
C = ([F-32] + 10%) ÷ 2
Example: 50˚F is how many ˚C?
50 - 32 = 18 + 1.8 = 20.6 ÷ 2 = 10.3 ≈ 10˚C
60 TO 1 RULE (to figure how many radials/NM)
Dist from VOR | 1˚ = ? NM
60 | 1˚ = 1 NM
30 | 1˚ = .5NM or 2˚/NM
20 | 1˚ = .3NM or 3˚/NM
15 | 1˚ = .25NM or 4˚/NM
10 | 1˚ = .16NM or 6˚/NM
FIGURING DISTANCE FROM THE STATION
(TAS x TIME)/∆RADIALS
Example: RMI bearing pointer falls 10 degrees in 1 minute and you are doing mach .8
(480 x 1)/10 = 48 DME from the station
FIGURING YOUR LEAD RADIAL
60/DME x (NM/Min - 2)
Example: You are on the 15 DME arc at 240 knots. When do you start your turn inbound?
Note: 240 is 4 NM/Min
60/15 = 4(radials/NM) x (4-2) which is 4 x 2 = 8.
Start your turn inbound 8 radials prior to reaching the inbound radial.
RADAR TILT
Degrees of tilt x 100 x DME + your altitude
Example: You are at 20,000' MSL and painting a cell 20 miles ahead. Your radar tilt is 5° up. How high is the cell?
5 x 100 x 20 + 20,000
5 x 100 = 500 x 20 = 10,000 + 20,000 = 30,000' MSL height of cell.
PITCH CHANGE (DESCENT ANGLE)
ALT TO LOSE(in Flight levels)/DISTANCE
Example: To lose 15,000' in 25 nm
150/25 = 6° (descent angle)
DESCENTS- VERTICAL SPEED REQ
DESCENT ANGLE x 100 x Speed in NM/MIN
Example: 20,000' to 5,000' in 100 NM at .6 mach.
How many feet per minute in the descent?
150/100 = 1.5 (descent angle) x 100 = 150 x 6 NM/min = 900 FPM
REMEMBER: any mach number = the same amount of miles/min (.6 = 6 miles per minute)
DESCENT GRADIENT (FT/NM)
FEET/NM (total feet ... not feet in FL's)
Example: To lose 15,000 feet in 25 NM.
15,000/25 = 600 Feet per NM
FIGURING FPM FOR A 3° GS
GRNDSPD ÷ 2 + 0
Example: 200 knots on approach. What should be your FPM in descent?
200/2 = 100 then add a zero.... = 1000 FPM (you could also just multiply GS x 5 and get the same answer)
VISUAL GLIDEPATH (AGL)
DIST FROM RUNWAY x 300 = HAA you should be at
Example: At 5DME from runway you should be at 1500' AGL
2DME x 300 = 600' AGL
CALCULATING VDP
USING DME
------ HAT ÷ 300 = DISTANCE FROM THRESHOLD TO PLACE VDP
USING TIME
----- 10% OF THE HAT = TIME IS SECONDS TO SUBTRACT FROM THE FAF TO THE MAP
CROSSWIND CORRECTION ANGLE
CROSSWIND IN KTS ÷ TAS(NM/MIN)
Example: 100 knots of crosswind TAS = 300 What is your correction angle?
100/5 = 20° correction
HOW LONG IS THE ARC?
∆RADIALS / # RADIALS/NM
How long is the 15 dme arc from the 047˚ radial to the 011˚ radial?
047-011 = DIFFERENCE OF 36 RADIALS
60/15 (DME ARC) = 4 RADIALS/NM
36 RADIALS ÷ 4 RADIALS/NM = 9 NM
FIGURING CROSSWIND COMPONENTS
INCLUDE GUST FACTORS WHEN CALCULATING
0 degrees x 0.0
30 degrees x .5
45 degrees x .7
60 degrees x .9
90 degrees x 1.0
FIGURING HEADWIND/TAILWIND COMPONENTS
INCLUDE GUST FACTORS WHEN CALCULATING
0 degrees x 1.0
30 degrees x .9
45 degrees x .7
60 degrees x .5
90 degrees x 0.0
LOAD FACTOR AND STALL SPEED
STALL SPEED INCREASES IN PROPORTION TO THE SQUARE ROOT OF THE LOAD FACTOR
Example: Your aircraft will stall normally at 45 knots. What is the stall speed at 4 g's?
45 x √4 = 90 knots.
ESTIMATING CLOUD BASES
TEMP - DEW POINT/2.5 = CLOUD BASES
THE MOIST ADIABATIC LAPSE RATE IS 2.5°/1,000 FT
Example: Temp 11 Dew point 6. About how high are the cloud bases?
11 - 6 = 5 ÷ 2.5 = 2 (or 2,000 feet AGL)
BANK ANGLE FOR STD RATE TURN
(TAS ÷ 10) x 1.5
300TAS ÷ 10 = 30 x 1.5 = 30.5˚ bank angle
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