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U.S. History Midterm Review
Terms in this set (40)
Strong dislike of foreigners including a desire to limit jobs to, and immigration of foreigners to the U.S. These believers would argue that immigrant groups worked for lower wages, and stole jobs. Notable groups included the Workingman's Party of California which successfully passed the Chinese Exclusion Act.
Extreme pride in one's country or cultural group. This can also be traced as a leading cause in the buildup to WWI.
Stronger nations taking over weaker nations. Often this occurs shortly after industrialization of a country due to a need for natural resources, markets for goods, power & prestige, or a spreading of culture. World History Connections = land grabbing in Africa. US History Connection = Spanish American War / Hawaii / Panama Canal
Fear of communist expansion. This was a constant fear following the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia during WWI. A. Mitchell Palmer organized the General Intelligence Division to hunt for these possible communists in the U.S. McCarthyism following WWII is another example of fearing communism.
The belief that God willed us to have lands to the West, and that it was our destiny to acquire them through whatever means necessary. This included the forced removal of Native American populations, depletion of the buffalo herds, and even continued into U.S. Imperialism.
The time period in the U.S. immediately following the Civil War, and ending with the Compromise of 1877. This saw "Congressional Reconstruction" following Lincoln's assassination, and harsh punishments levied upon the South. Slavery was ended, African Americans were given citizenship and males were given voting rights, and military rule governed over five zones in the South excluding Tennessee where the KKK was formed.
Time period in the U.S. from the 1870's through the 1920's where industrial factories, located in urban centers, began changing the nature of work in the U.S. from agriculture to industry. A result of this was an increased Gross Domestic Product (GDP - Total amount of revenue made through the goods and services provided by a country within a given year) in the United States that allowed us to become a powerful nation.
Amidst the Industrial Revolution, problems brought on by big business monopolies, immigration, and increased urbanization led to political corruption and poverty in American cities. Mark Twain and Charles Werner described this time period of growing national wealth, skyscrapers, and millionaires coupled with crime, tenements, poor living and working conditions, and social decay.
Corrupt political groups within urban areas in the late 1800's and early 1900's that used immigrant and lower class votes to retain their corrupt control over politics in American cities. These groups became wealthy from graft (money made illegally through politics), and would be detrimental to the proper functioning of government. Tammany Hall was the most notable example of these type of group in New York. Party Bosses such as William "Boss" Tweed controlled and benefited financially from these groups.
Railroad built between Omaha, Nebraska and Sacramento, California. It linked the U.S. from East to West, and allowed for settlement of Western territories that would later work toward statehood. Constructed by the Union Pacific and Central Pacific, the project employed many immigrant groups and former slaves to build the railroad. The Central Pacific recruited Chinese workers, greatly affecting the dynamic of west coast cities for future generations.
Gospel of Wealth
Idea of Andrew Carnegie following the sale of his steel manufacturing empire to JP Morgan. The philosophy held that wealthy Americans were responsible for using their great fortunes for social progress, or for engaging in philanthropy.
Philosophy of Herbert Spencer applying Charles Darwin's theory of evolution and natural selection to human society. This philosophy, describing the "survival of the fittest" was used by Americans during the Industrial Revolution to legitimize not only upper class wealth, but also the neglect toward lower class groups.
Time period from the late 1800's into the early 1900's where members of society called for the government to play a more active role in fixing societies problems. This would include an attacks from "Trust Busting" Presidents such as Teddy Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson on big business monopolies. The period would also see advantageous amendments to the Constitution including the 16th (federal income tax), 17th (direct election of senators), 18th (prohibition), and 19th (women's suffrage) Amendments.
Movement of groups from one country to another. During the Industrial Revolution the U.S. witnessed millions of citizens from western European countries entering the U.S. These groups were known as "Old Immigrants" for arriving before eastern and southern Europeans into the early 1900's. This later group was known as "New Immigrants", and faces severe Nativist backlash. Immigrant groups came for a variety of reasons known as push of pull factors. These push factors included religious persecution in their home countries such as European Jews, escaping forced military service such as that imposed in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, or even environmental factors such as the potato famine in Ireland. Pull factors bringing these individuals to the U.S. included available jobs, affordable land prices not seen in Europe, greater rights guaranteed by our Constitution, and social advancement possibilities.
Jim Crowe Laws
Laws imposed in the South to legally segregate African Americans and whites following the Civil War. The Supreme Court Case of Plessy v. Ferguson upheld these discriminatory laws throughout the country. Eventually, the Supreme Court Case of Brown v. Board of Education would strike down such laws in the mid 1950's.
Open Door Policy
Amidst U.S. Imperialism, trade in China was being conducted by multiple European countries in addition to ourselves. Each of these nations controlled separate "sphere's of influence" where they were given exclusive trading rights by the very weak Chinese government. To dissuade any hostilities as trade expanded and these spheres grew and overlapped, Secretary of State John Hay suggested open trade for all nations trading in China. Unfortunately, foreign economic control caused Chinese resentment which led to the Boxer Rebellion. In this, foreign embassies were attacked by Chinese that were part of the "League of Harmonious Fists", killing some 200 U.S. and European citizens. Eventually these "Boxer's" were crushed by a coalition force of mainly U.S. troops.
Translated as "let do", this French term encourages the ideals of a free market economy whereby personally owned businesses make their economic decisions based upon principles of supply and demand without government intervention or interference. This doctrine creates the backbone of our economy in the U.S., and rivals COMMAND economies in communist nations where the government owns or controls businesses and decides prices, production, and quantities. During times of conflict in the U.S such as WWI, our Government has interfered by controlling certain businesses and resources for war production. Therefore during these times we would be considered a MIXED economy where some businesses operate under laissez-faire while others were operating in a command system.
Economies of Scale
Growing a business through a variety of economic principles. This led American businesses during the Industrial Revolution to reinvest their profits into the company by buying more efficient machines, doubling their operations, and marketing their products. Additionally, this venture led businesses such as Carnegie Steel and Standard Oil to buy up competing businesses through horizontal integration, or buy up processes that made their products known as vertical integration. Ultimately, by doing so, these companies became monopolistic "trusts" where they controlled an entire business sector and could charge any price they wanted for their product. As a result, during the Progressive Era, the government began to limit the power of such organizations.
Movement began by farmer's in the Midwest and great planes states to increase political representation and positive change for agricultural acknowledgement, and the financial plight of farmers.
The steady buildup of a nations military capacity. This is seen as a leading cause in the buildup toward WWI. Europeans nations were building more advanced military hardware out of the Industrial Revolution, desired to try out their "new toys".
Systems of Alliances
Nation's promising mutual protection and engagement in military conflicts if their ally is attacked or engages in a war. In addition to Nationalism, Militarism, and Imperialism, this is seen as a leading factor in the advancement toward WWI.
The Great Migration
Flow of African Americans from the South to the North during WWI. By doing so, African Americans gained industrial jobs in war manufacturing which afforded them a better way of life than sharecropping or tenant farming in the South. Unfortunately, this led to racial rioting due to high inflation and competition for jobs following the war.
Treaty of Versailles (1919)
Treaty that ended WWI. Within this, Germany was forced to take responsibility for starting the "Great War", or what is known as the war guilt clause. Additionally, Germany was forced to pay heavy reparations, lost substantial territory, and saw a significant decline in their military. Historians cite the harshness of this treaty as a leading cause for WWII.
Espionage & Sedition Acts
Acts passed during WWI that made it illegal to spy on, or speak against the U.S. war effort. The later act drew substantial criticism, as it placed barriers against citizens first amendment rights of free speech.
Two parts. This system is the basis for the U.S. Legislative branch of government, and divides Congress into the House of Representatives and the Senate.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Signed four years after the Revolutionary War, this legislation paved the way for how the Midwestern territories would be settled, and how they could vie for statehood. The territory would be separated into five new states being Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin. It established necessary public education within districts, no cruel or unusual punishment, and even outlawed slavery.
Members of the Constitutional Convention who supported the ratification of the Constitution of the United States. In order to persuade voters to accept the new Constitution that did away with the Articles of Confederation, Jon Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison drafted the Federalist Papers. These papers offered readers helpful insight into how the Constitution would offer a better form of government.
Members of the Constitutional Convention who supported the inclusion of a Bill of Rights into the Constitution of the United States before its ratification.
Abolished slavery and involuntary servitude in the United States. This Amendment is the first of the "Civil War Amendments", and granted former slaves their freedom.
This amendment granted citizenship to formerly enslaved African Americans, as well as outlining who could be considered a citizen of the United States.
This amendment granted voting rights to all male citizens of the United States. On a positive note, former enslaved African American men were now able to vote. Unfortunately, this amendment had its roots in the Republican parties desire to capture new votes in the south, form a majority in Congress, override an Presidential veto, and therefore dictate the terms of reconstruction for the south.
Passed during the Progressive Era, this amendment gave the federal government the opportunity to levy a tax on personal income. Prior to this, individual states were responsible for collecting taxes and distributing necessary funds to the federal government.
Passed during the Progressive Era, this amendment allowed for citizens of a state to determine their senators based on voting. Prior to this, the state legislature would choose two members of their representative body to sit as senators in Washington. Ultimately it created a situation where senators are more responsible to the people of their state.
Passed during the Progressive Era, this amendment stopped the sale, transportation, and consumption of alcohol in the United States. This amendment was pursued by members of the Temperance movement who saw alcohol as the contributor to social decay. The amendment was also supported by business owners who desired a more productive workforce.
Passed during the Progressive Era, this amendment allowed for female suffrage in the U.S.
Alfred T. Mahan
Designer of U.S. Imperialism. He drafted the book: The Influence of Sea Power on History from 1660 - 1783, in which he outlined how the U.S. needed to increase trade to become a powerful nation. In order to do so Mahan described our need for a modern navy to protect trade ships, necessary island possessions for refueling our naval vessels, and a waterway between the isthmus of Panama. Ultimately the U.S. would open trade with Japan, and fight a war against Spain to gain Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines. Hawaii was also seized by American planters aided by the U.S. Marines.
Mathew C. Perry
Commodore who opened trade with Japan. He utilized "Gunboat Diplomacy" to threaten the Japanese emperor to accept trade demands by President Millard Fillmore. Afterward, the 200 year isolationist stance of Japan came to an end, and a more modernized Japan restructured its politics after the British system, economy after the German economy, and its military after the U.S.
Entry point for some 25 million European immigrants during the Industrial Revolution time period. These immigrants mainly settled in cities along the east coast of the U.S. in order to gain factory jobs. This caused a vast change to the makeup of cities during the time period. Immigrant populations lived near one another, and we began to see unique cultural areas of cities emerge such as "little Italy's", "German villages", and "Chinatowns".
Entry pint along the west coast of the United States where vast amounts of immigrants from Asia entered the U.S. This first began with the discovery of Gold in California in 1848, and increased with the recruitment of Chinese workers for the Transcontinental Railroad.
The ideas of Karl Marx. The ideology centers around a lower class violently revolting and overrunning the upper class. Once this is accomplished a utopian society would exist whereby wealth would be evenly distributed and the government would control the economy. As many incoming immigrants brought this belief into the U.S. during the Industrial Revolution, and professed such ideas as they began to unionize, business owners would fearfully call police and military whenever a strike occurred. This brought waves of violence to urban centers such as the Haymarket Square Riot in Chicago.
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