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Which one of the following is NOT a purpose of goals?
A. Goals provide an effective mechanism for evaluation and control. B. Goals are used to forecast potential issues
C. They provide guidance and unified direction for people in the organization.
D. Goals can serve as a source of motivation for an organization's employees.
B. Goals are used to forecast potential issues
Which one of the following is NOT a kind of goals?
A. Strategic goals
B. Tactical goals
C. Operational goals
D. Preemptive goals
D. Preemptive goals
A of Abercrombie & Fitch is its speed in moving inventory. It tracks consumer preferences daily with point-of-sale computers, electronically transmits orders to suppliers in Hong Kong, charters 747 cargo planes to fly new products to the United States, and has those products in stores 48 hours later.
A. strategic goal
B. distinctive competence
C. core value
D. long-term goal
B. distinctive competence
Which one of the following is NOT one of Michael Porter's generic strategies?
A. Differentiation strategy
B. Overall cost leadership strategy
C. Product life cycle strategy
D. Focus strategy
C. Product life cycle strategy
During the stage, overall demand growth for a product begins to slow down, and the number of new firms producing the product begins to decline.
1. A strategy in which an organization operates in several businesses that are somehow linked with one another is called a strategy.
A. portfolio management
C. unrelated diversification
D. related diversification
D. related diversification
In the BCG matrix, are businesses that have a very small share of a market that is not expected to grow.
C. cash cows
D. questions marks
___________________is the determination of alternative courses of action to be taken if an intended plan of action is unexpectedly disrupted or rendered inappropriate.
A. Contingency planning
B. Crisis management
C. Goal setting
________________are developed for activities that recur regularly over a period of time.
A. Standing plans
B. ontingency plans
C. Single-use plans
D. Multiple-use plans
When the decision maker knows with reasonable certainty what the alternatives are and what conditions are associated with each alternative, a________________exists.
A. state of certainty
B. state of risk
C. state of uncertainty
D. state of being risk-free
According to the classical decision model, which one of the following is NOT one of the assumptions regarding the decision-making process?
A. Decision makers have complete information about the decision situation and possible alternatives
B. Decision makers can effectively eliminate uncertainty to achieve a decision condition of certainty.
C. Decision makers evaluate all aspects of the decision situation logically and rationally.
D. Decision makers can always forecast the risks involved in making the decision.
Which one is NOT one of the steps in the rational decision-making process?
A. Recognizing and defining the decision situation
B. Selecting the best alternative
C. Evaluating options in case of making a bad decision
D. Following up and evaluating the results
For years, executives at GM, Ford, and Chrysler compared their companies' performance only to one another's and essentially ignored foreign imports. The foreign "threat" was not acknowledged until the domestic auto market had been changed forever. In this case, these executives were affected by:
A. bounded rationality
D. cultural limitations
Which one of the following is NOT one of the disadvantages of group and team decision making?
A. Groupthink may occur
B. One person may dominate the group
C. The process takes longer than individual decision-making, so it is costlier.
D. Members are more likely to accept the final decision
_____________is when a decision maker stays with a decision even when it appears to be wrong.
A. Irrational belief
B. Deliberate reasoning
C. Irrational commitment
D. Escalation of commitment
__________is an informal alliance of individuals or groups formed to achieve a common goal.
A. political party
D. temporary group
Strategy___________is the set of processes involved in creating or determining the organization's strategies.
An alternative to job specialization that increases the total number of tasks that workers perform is called:
A. job enlargement
B. job rotation
C. job grouping
D. job characteristic approach
Which one of the following is NOT a dimension of the job characteristics approach?
A. task identity
B. skill variety
A_______organization is one in which decision-making power and authority are delegated as far down the chain of command as possible.
At Toyota, one plant assembles engines and then ships them to a final assembly site at another plant, where the cars are completed. This represents the________form of coordination.
A. group interdependence
B. reciprocal interdependence
C. pooled interdependence
D. sequential interdependence
Which one of the following is NOT one characteristic of an ideal bureaucracy, according to Max Weber?
A. The organization should adopt a distinct division of labor, and each position should be filled by an expert.
B. The organization should establish a hierarchy of positions or offices that creates a chain of command from the top of the organization to the bottom.
C. Managers should conduct business in an personal way and advancement and promotion within the organization should be based on personal relationships.
D. The organization should develop a consistent set of rules to ensure that task performance is uniform.
A tailor shop specializing in custom suits, a printing shop that produces business cards and company stationery, and a photography studio use which form of technology, as identified by Woodward?
A. Generic technology
B. Continuous process technology
C. Large batch or mass production technology
D. Unit or small batch technology
According to the Lewin model, which step is taken after the change is implemented?
Which one of the following is NOT one of the reasons people may resist change?
B. Threatened self-interests
C. Feeling of loss
D. Personal animosity towards managers
Which one of the following is NOT one of the ways to overcome resistance to change?
B. Education and communication
Which of the following is NOT one area of organization change?
A. Organization structure and design
B. Technology and operations
_________involves the evaluation, modification, and improvement of creative ideas.
A. Innovation development
B. Innovation application
C. Application launch
D. Application growth
HRM (or "personnel," as it is sometimes called) was once relegated to second-class status in many organizations.
The________lists the duties of a job, the job's working conditions, and the tools, materials, and equipment used to perform it.
A. job specification
B. job description
C. job rotation
D. job performance appraisal
The_______provides the applicant with a real picture of what it would be like to perform the job that the organization is trying to fill.
A. realistic job preview
B. company tour
C. job interview
D. job trial
________error is allowing the assessment of an employee on one dimension to "spread" to ratings of that employee on other dimensions.
D. First impression
Which one of the following is NOT one type of compensation?
Amy has just received her 360-degree feedback appraisal. This means she was evaluated:
A. by a circle of managers.
B. on many different dimensions of job performance.
C. by a sampling of the people she interacts with.
D. on many different days during the year.
The_________perspectives of motivation address the question "What factors in the workplace motivate people?"
Job satisfiers or motivators, according to the two-factor theory, relate to the:
A. financial bonuses associated with the job.
B. content of the job.
C. working conditions surrounding the job.
D. benefits associated with the job.
The______________needs can be satisfied in the workplace by assured job continuity (no layoffs), an effective grievance system (to protect against arbitrary supervisory actions), and an adequate insurance and retirement benefit package (for assurance against illness and provision of income in later life).
Which one of the following is NOT an assumption of the expectancy theory of motivation?
A. It assumes that behavior is determined by a combination of forces in the individual and in the environment.
B. It assumes that people make decisions about their own behavior in organizations.
C. It assumes that different people have different types of needs, desires, and goals
D. It assumes that people make choices from among alternative plans of behavior, based on their perceptions of the extent to which a given behavior will lead to desired outcomes.
E. It assumes that people expect the highest results for the best of efforts.
According to the equity theory, if Mark has a high school education and earns $35,000, he may still feel equitably treated relative to Susan, who earns $50,000, because she has a college degree.
When employees do not know when the boss is going to drop by, they tend to maintain a reasonably high level of effort all the time. This represents the_____________strategy of reinforcement.
A. fixed-ratio schedule
B. fixed-interval schedule
C. variable-interval schedule
D. variable-ratio schedule
Team members must identify with the leader in order for the leader to exercise__________power.
According to the managerial grid model, which type of management is characterized by efficiency in operations resulting from arranging conditions of work in such a way that human elements interfere to a minimum degree?
A. Country club
According to the path-goal theory of leadership, which kind of leader behavior is characterized by the leader being being friendly and approachable, showing concern for subordinate welfare, and treating members as equals.
A. Directive leader behavior
B. Supportive leader behavior
C. Participative leader behavior
D. Achievement-oriented leader behavior
Which model of leadership suggests that leaders form unique independent relationships with each of their subordinates?
A. Leader-Member Exchange Model
B. Path-Goal Theory
C. Least-preferred Co-worker Theory
D. Charismatic Leadership
Your supervisor promises to put in a good word with the CEO about you, if you show your support to her proposal in an important meeting. In this case, your supervisor is displaying the___________form of political behavior.
C. creation of an obligation
Which of the following is NOT one of the purposes of control?
A. Limiting the accumulation of error
B. Coping with organizational complexity
C. Providing the basis for punishment
D. Minimizing costs
Which type of control focuses on the processes the organization uses to transform resources into products or services?
A. Operations control
B. Financial control
C. Structural control
D. Strategic control
What is the first step in the control process?
A. Measuring performance
B. Establishing control standards
C. Comparing performance against standards
D. Considering corrective action
A company only hires accountants that have a CPA certificate and at least two years of relevant work experience, to ensure the quality of the human resources entering the organization. In this case, the company is enforcing .
A. postaction control
B. screening control
C. preliminary control
D. transformation control
Which one of the following is NOT an advantage of budgets?
A. Budgets facilitate effective control.
B. Budgets also facilitate coordination and communication between departments because they express diverse activities in a common denominator (dollars).
C. Budgets provide a rigid framework, so employees always know what to do.
D. Budgets help maintain records of organizational performance and are a logical complement to planning.
Your manager knows how to deal with difficult situations regarding customer complaints. In this case, the manager has__________power over employees that regularly have to deal with these complaints and may need his advice.
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