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A . There are a myriad of lifestyle issues affecting the youth of today. Such is the pressure heaped on many school-goers to achieve academic excellence by their parents that these1_(phi thực tế)_ (real) expectations are causing children to become hopelessly depressed.Indeed, some, in their 2_( sự tuyệt vọng)__ (despair) to escape and their sense of guilt at beingunable reach the levels of success demanded of them by their 3_(thúc ép)__ (push) parents, either rebel in what is 4__(tuong đương với)__ (amount) to a cry for help, or, worse still, engage in5_(tự làm hại bản thân)_ (harm). It is no coincidence that suicide rates, expecially amongst youngmales, have been rising steadily for some time now. These are tough times to be a teen.Then there are those who get hooked on the internet; the 6 _(ảo)__ (virtue) world becomes their reality. For these teens, their social circle shrinks 7_______ (drama) until,at last, their friendship sphere is limited solely to their online 8__(bạn)__ (bud). Not alone do they commonly suffer from sleep 9__(sự tước đoạt)__ (private) on account of their destructive addiction to game play and net-surfing, their behaviour may become so 10 _(thất thường)_ (err) and peculiar over time as to be considered 11__(khó gần gũi)__ (social) . And while they sit at their computer screens hidden away in splendid isolation from the real world, such is the lack of exercise they get that their calorie intake far exceeds what is necessary for them to maintain a stable weight. In essence, due to their sedentary lifestyle, their weight12__(tăng mạnh)_ (rocket) until such time as they become morbidly obese.
C. In January 2001, the 1____đa chính phủ___ (govern) Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) issued its latest report on climate change. Climate models worked out by giant super-computers had become far more reliable since the previous report in 1995 and allowed them to2____đánh giá lại___ (praise) the earlier projections for global warming.Their conclusions were that something very serious is happening and that it cannot be a natural process. The 1990s was the hottest decade for 1,000 years and the Earth is warming faster than at any time in the last 10,000 years. According to the report, human activities are 3___rõ rệt, dứt khoát____ (equivocate) to blame for the temperature rise. The burning of fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide and, due to deforestation, there are fewer trees to absorb this gas and recycle it back into oxygen. Methane 4____nồng độ___ (concentrate) have also gone up dramatically because of increases in rice culture and 5___chăn nuôi gia súc____ (cattle), both of which generate methane from 6____phân hủy___ (compose) vegetation. These greenhouses gases trap heat in theEarth's atmosphere and cause the temperature to rise. In the worst case, the resulting melting of ice-caps and glaciers would cause sea levels to rise by up to 88 cm,endangering the homes and 7___sinh kế____ (lively) of tens of millions of people who live inlow-lying regions. Unfortunately, there is far greater 8____sự nhất trí___ (unanimous) among the world's scientists over the issue than among politicians. As long ago as 1990, the IPCC recommended a 60% reduction in carbon dioxide 9___sự tỏa khí, khí thải____ (emit), as the basic level required to return the planet's climate to a healthy level. Governments globally failed to 10___ban hành____ (act)these proposals. Now that the dangers have been reaffirmed by the latest report, it is hightime that governments took an active interest in exploring alternative, renewable energysources.
D. People intuitively recognize the importance of self-esteem to their psychological health, so it isn't particularly remarkable that most of us try to protect and enhance it inourselves whenever possible. What is remarkable is that attention to self-esteem has become a(n) 1____công cộng___ (commune) concern, at least for Americans, who see a favorable opinion of oneself as the central psychological source from which all manner of positive outcomes spring. The corollary, that low self-esteem lies at the root of individual and thus2___thuộc xã hội____ (society) problems and 3___sự hoạt động khác thường____ (function), has sustained an ambitious socialagenda for decades. Indeed, campaigns to raise people's sense of self-worth abound.Consider what transpired in California in the late 1980s. Prodded by State AssemblymanJohn Vasconcellos, Governor George Deukmejian set up a task force on self-esteem and personal and social responsibility. Vasconcellos argued that raising self-esteem in young people would reduce crime, teen pregnancy, drug abuse, school 4____kém, không tốt như mong đợi___ (achieve) and pollution. At one point, he even expressed the hope that these efforts would one day help balance the state budget, a prospect predicated on the observation that people with high5___tự trọng____ (regard) earn more than others and thus pay more in taxes. Along with its other activities, the task force assembled a team of scholars to survey the relevant literature.The results appeared in a 1989 volume 6____được đặt tên___ (title) The Social Importance of Self-Esteem, which stated that "many, if not most, of the major problems plaguing society have roots in the low self-esteem of many of the people who make up society." In reality,the report contained little to support that assertion.
F. Pop art was a(n) 1___trái với thường lệ____ (convention) art style in which 2_____tầm thường__ (common)objects such as comic strips, soup cans and road signs were used as subject matter, and were often incorporated into the work. The pop art movement was largely a British andAmerican cultural phenomenon of the late 1950s and '60s. Art critic Lawrence Alloway,referring to the prosaic 3___sự mô tả bằng hình tượng____ (icon) of its painting and sculpture, named the movement pop art. It represented an attempt to return to a more objective and 4_______ (universe) accepted form of art after the dominance in both the United States and Europeof the highly personal abstract 5___chủ nghĩa biểu hiện____ (express). The art form was iconoclastic,rejecting the 6___uy quyền____ (supreme) of the 'high art' of the past and the 7___sự phô trương, khoe khoang____ (pretend)of other contemporary avant-garde art. Pop art became a cultural institution because of its close reflection of a particular social situation and because its easily 8___hiểu được____ (comprehend) images were immediately exploited by the mass media. Although the critics of pop art describe it as sensational and non-aesthetic, its proponents saw it as an art that was democratic and not 9____phân biệt đối xử___ (discriminate), bringing together both connoisseurs and untrained inexperienced viewers. Even though public reaction to pop art was 10____không có ích___ (favour), it found critical acceptance as a form of art suited to the highly technological, mass media-oriented society of western countries.