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Influencing the Order
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Terms in this set (46)
ABC measures the cost and performance of activities, resources, and cost objects. Resources are assigned to activities, then activities are assigned to cost objects based on their use

Traditional cost accounting is well suited to situations where an output and an allocation process are highly correlated.

Traditional cost accounting is not very effective in situations where the output is not correlated with the allocation base.
One Method to Classify Customers by Profitability Protect ZoneThose customers who fall into the "Protect" segment are the most profitable.Danger ZoneCustomers in the "Danger Zone" segment are the least profitable and incur a loss.The firm has has three alternatives for danger zone customers:(1) change customer interaction with firm so the customer can move to another segment (2) charge the customer the actual cost of doing business (3) switch the customer to an alternative distribution channelBuild ZoneThese customers have a low cost to serve and a low net sales value, so the firm should maintain the cost to serve and build net sales value to help drive the customer into the "Protect" segment.Order ManagementThis system represents the principle means by which buyers and sellers communicate information regarding orders. Effective order management is key to operational efficiency and customer satisfaction. Logistics needs timely and accurate information relating to orders so many firms place order management in the logistics area.Order to cash (OTC) or Order Cycle (outbound shipments)Thirteen principle activities constitute the OTC cycle as per SCOR model (page 276): D1.1 through D1.7 represent information flows D1.8 through D1.12 represent product flows D1.13 represents cash flowOrder cycleall activities that occur from when an order is received until the product is received (lead time)Replenishment cyclerefers to acquisition of additional inventory one firm's order cycle is another's replenishment cycleOrder To Cash Cyclerecent attention has centered on the variability or consistency of this process absolute length of time is important, variability is more important a driving force is safety stock, as absolute length of the order cycle will influence demand inventoryE-Commerce Order Fulfillment StrategiesMany firms use Internet technology to capture order information for fulfillment systems for picking, packing, and shipping. Internet allows faster collection of cash by the seller.The Logistics/Marketing InterfaceCustomer service is the key link between logistics and marketing within an organization. Manufacturing can produce a quality product at the right cost and marketing can sell it, but if logistics does not deliver it when and where promised, the customer will not be satisfied.Three different perspectives on customer servicephilosophy as a set of performance measures as an activityCustomer serviceneeds to be put into perspective as including anything that touches the customerThree levels of a product(1) the core benefit or service, which constitutes what the buyer is really buying (2) the tangible product, or the physical product or service itself (3) the augmented product, which includes benefits, adds value for the customerFour distinct dimensions of customer service:Time Dependability Communications ConvenienceTimecycle time safe delivery correct ordersDependabilitymore important than the absolute length of lead timeCommunicationspretransaction transaction posttransactionConvenienceservice level must be flexibleCustomer Service Performance Measures from buyer's viewOrders received on time Orders received complete Orders received damage Orders filled accurately Orders billed accuratelyExpected Cost of Stockouts: Stockout occurs when desired quantities are not available Four possible events:the buyer waits until the product is available the buyer back-orders the product the seller loses current revenue the seller loses a buyer and future revenueBack Orders:occurs when a seller has only a portion of the products ordered by the buyer are created to secure the portion of the inventory that is currently not availableLost Sales:some customers will turn to alternative supply sourcesLost Customerscustomer permanently switches to another supplierDetermining the Expected Cost of Stockoutsback order lost sale lost customer identify potential consequences calculate each result's expense or lost profitProduct availability from customer perspective:Did I get what I wanted? When I wanted it? In the quantity I wanted? Product availability is the ultimate measure of logistics and supply chain performance.Metricsfour are widely used across multiple industries: internal metrics item fill rate line fill rate external metrics order fill rate perfect orderCalculation for lost cash flowCash Flow Lost = (Number of Incomplete Orders Back- Ordered x Back Order Cost per Order) + (Number of Incomplete Orders Cancelled x Lost Pretax Profit per Order) + (Number of Incomplete Back-Ordered x Invoice Deduction per Order)Order Cycle Time:the time that elapses from when a buyer places an order until receipt of the order absolute length and reliability of order cycle time influences both firm's inventories, resulting in impacts on both revenues and profits for both organizationsTwo inventory cost reduction calculationsreduced standard deviation of order cycle time (OCT) on safety stocks Safety Stock = {Demand per Day x [OCT + (z x Standard Deviation of OCT)]} - (Demand per Day x OCT) determine the impact of the reduction of absolute order cycle time on demand inventories Demand Inventory Cost Reduction = Difference in Absolute OCT x Demand per Day x Cost per Unit x Inventory Carrying Cost PercentLogistics operations responsiveness (LOR)Examines how well a seller can respond to a buyer's needs. This "response" can take two forms: LOR can be how well a seller can customize its service offerings to the unique requirements of a buyer LOR can be how quickly a seller can respond to a sudden change in a buyer's demand pattern.Logistics System Informationis critical to the logistics and order management processes underlies ability to provide quality product availability, order cycle time, logistics operations responsiveness, and post-sale logistics support timely and accurate information can reduce inventories in the supply chain and improve cash flow to all supply chain partnersFinancial ImpactThe calculation used to measure the result on cash flow for decreasing the order-to-cash cycle is as follows: Cast Flow Increase = Invoice Value x (Cost of Capital/365) x Difference in Days in the Order-to-Cash CyclePost-sale logistics support (PLS) can take two forms:PLS can be the management of product returns from the customer to the supplier. The second form of PLS is product support through the delivery and installation of spare parts. Calculation to determine the spare part service cost is as follows: Service Cost = Penalty Cost + Lost Purchase Margin + Lost Support MarginService RecoveryNo matter how well an organization plans to provide excellent service, mistakes will occur. Recovery requires a firm to realize that mistakes will occur and have plans in place to fix them.SummaryOrder management and customer service are not mutually exclusive; there is a direct and critical relationship between these two concepts. There are two distinct, yet related, aspects of order management: influencing the customer's order and executing the customer's order. Customer relationship management (CRM) is a concept being used today by organizations to help them better understand their customers' requirements and understand how these requirements integrate back into their internal operations processes. Activity-based costing (ABC) is being used today to help organizations develop customer profitability profiles which allow for customer segmentation strategies. Order management, or order execution, is the interface between buyers and sellers in the market and directly influences customer service. Order management can be measured in various ways. Traditionally, however, buyers will assess the effectiveness of order management using order cycle time and dependability as the metric, while sellers will use the order-to-cash cycle as their metric. Customer service is considered the interface between logistics and marketing in seller organizations. The three definitions of customer service are: (1) as an activity, (2) as a set of performance metrics, and (3) as a philosophy. The major elements of customer service are time, dependability, communications, and convenience. Stockout costs can be calculated as back order costs, the cost of lost sales, and/or the cost of a lost customer. The five outputs from order management that influence customer service, customer satisfaction, and profitability are: (1) product availability, (2) order cycle time, (3) logistics operations responsiveness, (4) logistics system information, and (5) postsale logistics support. The concept of service recovery is being used by organizations today to help identify service failure areas in their order management process and to develop plans to address them quickly and accurately.